‘Leaving no one behind’ is at the heart of the commitment of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which aims to allow all people in all countries to benefit from socio-economic development and to achieve the full realization of human rights. Caution must be taken in order to clearly differentiate between ‘water rights’ and the human rights to water and sanitation. Water rights, which are normally regulated under national laws, are conferred to an individual or organization through property rights or land rights, or through a negotiated agreement between the state and landowner(s). Such rights are often temporary and can potentially be withdrawn. The human rights to water and sanitation are neither temporary nor subject to state approval, and they cannot be withdrawn. Who are being left behind? There are multiple prohibitive grounds of discrimination, but poverty usually figures quite prominently. Women and girls regularly experience discrimination and inequalities in the enjoyment of their human rights to safe drinking water and sanitation in many parts of the world.