This Publication presents the findings of a review of land tenure security issues in fifteen (15) selected countries across Asia and the Pacific region. It aims to highlight the major land issues, challenges and opportunities as the basis for future decisions about partnerships and engagement in the land sector at sub-regional and country level. The findings are based on an extensive literature review, interviews, a questionnaire, validation at multi-stakeholder meetings, and peer review. It is aimed at a general audience involved in policy and decision-making in the land sector, as well as the broader development sector.
In the past two decades, urbanization and the rapid transformation of urban areas in the Asia- Pacific region has been the engine of economic growth and prosperity in most countries. Urbanization across Asia has increased from 32 per cent urban in 1990 to 48 per cent urban in 2010. In 2018, the region will have more people living in cities than in rural areas for the first time. However, this economic success has come with social costs related to equity of access to land, and with environmental costs. Poverty is concentrated in marginal areas such as remote uplands, marginal coastal areas and unreliably watered drylands, and socially among women, indigenous peoples, the socially excluded, pastoralists, internally displaced people, the landless, and small and marginal farmers. There are major challenges related to climate change, natural disasters, food security and environmental degradation
Despite the diversity of the region, six issues emerged as the key land tenure security issues for most countries and most regions. These were: (i) changing rural populations, (ii) women’s access to land, (iii) rapid urbanization and urban growth, (iv) Indigenous Peoples tenure security, (v) climate change and natural disasters, (vi) and as Islamic tenures and principles. These key challenges are summarized below: