In the coming decades, climate change will force cities to grapple with new operating conditions to construct and maintain key urban infrastructure. Strategies for covering the costs of climate-resilient upgrades will vary by locale, reflecting differing market, regulatory, and policy circumstances. This policy brief draws on World Bank experience and datasets and a review of academic and grey literature on financing three core urban infrastructure systems – water, transport, and energy. It seeks to answer the question of what funding and financing instruments may be available to local governments and infrastructure system operators in different cities around the world, and how these link back to the climate challenges they may face. This brief was developed as part of the Financing Climate Futures initiative, a joint effort of OECD, UN Environment, and the World Bank Group.